In order to counter brain drain, UNDP funded programme titled “Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN)” was remained implemented in Pakistan during 1980 to 2003. Prior to it , a similar programme namely “Regular Visits of Pakistani Professionals Positioned Abroad to Pakistan” was started in 1978 with Government funds which was entrusted to the National Talent Pool whereas TOKTEN programme was being implemented by Economic Affairs Division with UNDP funds.
By a Cabinet decision in August, 1989, both the programmes i.e. TOKTEN and “Regular Visits of Pakistani Professionals Positioned Abroad to Pakistan” were merged in order to revitalize and expand activities. The merged programme was named as TOKTEN and responsibility of its implementation was assigned to National Talent Pool, Ministry of Education and Trainings with UNDP funds.
UNDP declined its financial support gradually as per their policy and stopped financing the programme. Keeping in view the usefulness of the Programme and demand from premier organizations and institutions in Pakistan, the activity has been extended under PSDP.